HPV

HPV یا ویروس پاپیلومای انسانی چیست؟

نوعی ویروس است که با ورود آن به سلول ها باعث ایجاد عفونت می شود.

بعد از اینکه HPV به سلول وارد می شود، کنترل سلول داخلی را برای ایجاد نسخه هایی از خودش تغییر می دهد.

بیش از ۱۵۰ نوع ویروس HPV وجود دارد.

حدود ۴۰ نوع از این ویروس ناحیه تناسلی زنان و مردان را آلوده می کند و طی رابطه جنسی واژینال، مقعدی یا دهانی و از طریق تماس پوست با پوست گسترش می یابد.

HPV شایع ترین عفونت منتقله از راه جنسی در ایالات متحده می باشد.

تقریبا همه کسانی که از نظر جنسی فعال هستند، ممکن است در برخی از دوران زندگی خود به HPV مبتلا می شود.

 

علائم و نشانه های HPV چیست؟

مانند بسیاری از بیماری های منتقله از راه جنسی، عفونت HPV تناسلی غالبا هیچ علامتی ندارد.

فرد آلوده معمولا از بیماری آگاه نیست و می تواند نا آگاهانه عفونت را به دیگران منتقل کند.

حدود ۱۰ نوع HPV باعث ایجاد زگیل(WART) تناسلی می شود.

این نوع ها کم خطر نامیده می شوند.

اکثر موارد زگیل تناسلی فقط توسط دو نوع کم خطر HPV (نوع ۶ و ۱۱) ایجاد می شوند.

زگیل های تناسلی می توانند بیرون یا درون واژن یا آلت تناسلی آقایان،اطراف مقعد،ناحیه وولو یا روی دهانه رحم رشد کنند و پراکنده شوند.

زگیل های تناسلی سرطان نیستند و به سرطان تبدیل نمی شوند و می توانند توسط جراحی یا دارو درمان شوند.

 

ارتباط ویروسHPV با سرطان چیست؟

حداقل ۱۳ نوع از ویروس HPV با سرطان دهانه رحم، مقعد، آلت تناسلی دهان و گلو ارتباط دارند.

انواعی از این ویروس که باعث سرطان می شوند، پرخطر نامیده می شوند.

بیشترین مولد سرطان را دو نوع پرخطر (نوع ۱۶ و ۱۸) ایجاد می کنند.

 

آیا ابتلا به HPV به این معنی است که فرد به زگیل تناسلی یا سرطان مبتلا می شود؟

خیر، در اغلب موارد سیستم ایمنی با این ویروس می جنگد و آنها از بدن خارج می کند.

 

واکسن HPV چیست؟

واکسن HPV اگر در زمان مناسب تزریق شود ، می تواند از ابتلا به HPV جلوگیری کند.

این واکسن می تواند در برابر انواع HPV که باعث سرطان و زگیل تناسلی می شوند از بدن محافظت کند.

بهتر است فرد قبل از شروع رابطه جنسی این واکسن را دریافت کند اما اگر بعد از شروع فعالیت جنسی هم تزریق شود، خطر ابتلا به HPV را کاهش می دهد.

سن ایده آل برای دریافت واکسن ۱۱ یا ۱۲ سالگی است.

برای افراد بین ۱۴-۹ ساله ۲ نوبت و برای سایر افراد ۳ نوبت  تزریق واکسن تجویز می شود.

مطالعات نشان می دهد که دریافت تمام دوزهای واکسن HPV قبل از شروع فعالیت جنسی می تواند خطر ابتلا به انواع خاصی از سرطان های مرتبط با HPV را تا ۹۹ درصد کاهش می دهد.

 

آیا واکسن HPV  عارضه دارد؟

از زمان انتشار واکسن  HPV میلیون ها نفر علیه آن واکسینه شده اند.

هیچ گزارشی از عوارض جانبی شدید یا واکنش های بد به واکسن گزارش نشده است.

شایع ترین عارضه جانبی واکسن HPV، درد و قرمزی در محل تزریق است.

 

آیا واکسن HPV خاصیت درمانی هم دارد؟

خیر، واکسیناسیون به جلوگیری از عفونت HPV کمک می کند اما برای HPV که قبلا رخ داده راه درمانی نیست.

لازم به ذکر است که زنانی که واکسینه شده اند هم نیاز به غربالگری منظم سرطان دهانه رحم (پاپ اسمیر) دارند.

 

راه های جلوگیری از ابتلا به عفونت HPV چیست؟

۱- واکسیناسیون

۲- محدود بدون تعداد شرکای جنسی

۳- استفاده از کاندوم( البته کاندوم نمی تواند به طور کامل از انتقال HPV جلوگیری کند)

۴- تقویت سیستم ایمنی بدن

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